20171010477Dynamic Stall Prediction of a Pitching Airfoil using an Adjusted Two-Equation URANS Turbulence Model22The necessity in the analysis of dynamic stall becomes increasingly important due to its impact on many streamlined structures such as helicopter and wind turbine rotor blades. The present paper provides Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) predictions of a pitching NACA 0012 airfoil at reduced frequency of 0.1 and at small Reynolds number value of 1.35e5. The simulations were carried out by adjusting the k − ε URANS turbulence model in order to damp the turbulence production in the near wall region. The damping factor was introduced as a function of wall distance in the buffer zone region. Parametric studies on the involving variables were conducted and the effect on the prediction capability was shown. The results were compared with available experimental data and CFD simulations using some selected two-equation turbulence models. An improvement of the lift coefficient prediction was shown even though the results still roughly mimic the experimental data. The flow development under the dynamic stall onset was investigated with regards to the effect of the leading and trailing edge vortices. Furthermore, the characteristics of the flow at several chords length downstream the airfoil were evaluated.110G.BanggaInstitute of Aerodynamics and Gas Dynamics, University of Stuttgart, GermanyInstitute of Aerodynamics and Gas Dynamics, University of Stuttgart, Germanypaysgalih.senja@gmail.comH.SasongkoMechanical Engineering Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, IndonesiaMechanical Engineering Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesiapaysherman@me.its.ac.idComputational fluid dynamics Flow turbulence Pitching airfoil Vortex flow.[Arabshahi, A., M. Beddhu, W. Briley, J. Chen, A. Gaither, J. Janus, M. Jiang, D. Marcum, J. McGinley, R. Pankajakshan and et al. (1998). A perspective on naval hydrodynamic flow simulations. In Proceeding of 22nd ONR Symposium on Naval Hydro 920–934.##
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]Maximum Pressure Evaluation during Expulsion of Entrapped Air from Pressurized Pipelines22Pressurized pipeline systems may have a wide operating regime. This paper presents the experimental analysis of the transient flow in a horizontal pipe containing an air pocket, which allows the ventilation of the air after the pressurization of the hydraulic system, through an orifice placed at the downstream end. The measurements are made on a laboratory set-up, for different supply pressures and various geometries of water column length, air pocket and expulsion orifice diameter. Dimensional analysis is carried out in order to determine a relation between the parameters influencing the maximum pressure value. A two equations model is obtained and a criterion is established for their use. The equations are validated with experimental data from the present laboratory set-up and with other data available in the literature. The results presented as non-dimensional quantities variations show a good agreement with the previous experimental and analytical researches.1120D. M.BucurUniversity POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, RomaniaUniversity POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romaniapaysdmbucur@yahoo.comG.DuncaUniversity POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, RomaniaUniversity POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Romaniapaysgeorgianadunca@yahoo.co.ukM. J.CervantesLuleå University of Technology, Luleå, SwedenLuleå University of Technology, Luleå, Swedenpaysmichel.cervantes@ltu.seAir expulsion Air pocket Pressure wave speed Transient Dimensionless analysis.[Carlos, M., F. J. Arregui, E. Cabrera and C. V. Palau (2011). Understanding Air Release through Air Valves. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 137(4), 461-469.##
Cheng, Y., J. Li and J. Yang (2007). Free surface-pressurized flow in ceiling-sloping tailrace tunnel of hydropower plant: Simulation by VOF model. J. Hydraul. Res. 45(1), 88-99.##
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]Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a Longfin Inshore Squid’s Flow Characteristics22In the present study, a three-dimensional numerical squid model was generated from a computed tomography images of a longfin inshore squid to investigate fluid flow characteristics around the squid. The three-dimensional squid model obtained from a 3D-printer was utilized in digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) measurements to acquire velocity contours in the region of interest. Once the three-dimensional numerical squid model was validated with DPIV results, drag force and coefficient, required jet velocity to reach desired swimming velocity for the squid and propulsion efficiencies were calculated for different nozzle diameters. Besides, velocity and pressure contour plots showed the variation of velocity over the squid body and flow separation zone near the head of the squid model, respectively. The study revealed that viscous drag was nearly two times larger than the pressure drag for the squid’s Reynolds numbers of 442500, 949900 and 1510400. It was also found that the propulsion efficiency increases by 20% when the nozzle diameter of a squid was enlarged from 1 cm to 2 cm.2130A.Bahadir OlcayYeditepe University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Atasehir, Istanbul 34755, TurkeyYeditepe University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Atasehir, Istanbul 34755, Turkeypaysbahadir.olcay@yeditepe.edu.trM.Tabatabaei MalaziYildiz Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Besiktas, Istanbul 34349, TurkeyYildiz Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Besiktas, Istanbul 34349, Turkeypaysmtabatabaei66@hotmail.comA.OkbazYildiz Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Besiktas, Istanbul 34349, TurkeyYildiz Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Besiktas, Istanbul 34349, Turkeypaysabdulkerimokbaz@gmail.comH.HeperkanYildiz Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Besiktas, Istanbul 34349, TurkeyYildiz Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Besiktas, Istanbul 34349, Turkeypaysheperkan@yildiz.edu.trE.FıratCukurova University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Saricam / Adana 01330, TurkeyCukurova University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Saricam / Adana 01330, Turkeypaysefirat@cu.edu.trV.OzbolatCukurova University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Saricam / Adana 01330, TurkeyCukurova University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Saricam / Adana 01330, Turkeypaysvozbolat@cu.edu.trM.Gokhan GokcenDogus University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Kadikoy 34722 Istanbul, TurkeyDogus University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Kadikoy 34722 Istanbul, Turkeypaysggokcen@dogus.edu.trB.SahinCukurova University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Saricam / Adana 01330, TurkeyCukurova University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Saricam / Adana 01330, Turkeypaysbsahin@cu.edu.trComputed tomography (CT) CFD Drag Propulsive efficiency Longfin inshore squid.[Anderson, E. J. and M. A. Grosenbaugh (2005). Jet flow in steadily swimming adult squid. J. Exp. Biol. 208, 1125–46.##
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Tabatabaei, M. M., A. Okbaz and A. B. Olcay (2015). Numerical investigation of a longfin inshore squid's flow characteristics. Ocean Engineering 108, 462-470.##
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Zhou, H., T. Hu, K. H. Low, L. Shen, Z. Ma, M. Wang and H. Xu (2015). Bio-inspired Flow Sensing and Prediction for Fish-like Undulating Locomotion: A CFD-aided Approach. Journal of Bionic Engineering 12, 406–417.##
]Acoustic Detection of Cavitation Inception22Cavitation phenomenon can cause deterioration of the hydraulic performance, damage by pitting, material erosion, structure vibration and noise in fluid machinery, turbo-machinery, ship propellers and in many other applications. Therefore, it is important to detect inception of cavitation phenomenon. An experimental study has been carried out in order to investigate the noise radiated by various cavitating sources to determine the validity of noise measurements for detecting the onset of cavitation. Measurements have been made measuring the noise radia¬ted by a number of configurations in a water tunnel at various operating condition to determine the onset of cavita¬tion. The measurements have been conducted over a frequency range of 31.5 Hz to 31.5 kHz in one-third octave bands. The on¬set of cavitation was measured visually through a Perspex side of the working section of the water tunnel. Moreover, a theoretical estimate of the pressure radiated from the cavitation nuclei at their critical radii and their frequency was presented. Tests indicated that, generally, at the point of visual incep¬tion there was a marked rise of the sound pressure level in the high-frequency noise, whilst the low-frequency noise in¬creased as the cavitation developed. This finding was supported by the theoretical estimate of the pulsating frequency of cavitation nuclei. The results illustrated that the visual observations of inception confirm the noise measurements.3140M. A.HosienMechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufyia University, Shebin El-Kom EgyptMechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufyia University, Shebin El-Kom Egyptpaysmohamed_abdelaziz14@yahoo.comS. M.SelimMechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufyia University, Shebin El-Kom EgyptMechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufyia University, Shebin El-Kom Egyptpayssobhselim@yahoo.comCavitation Noise Sound pressure level Acoustic.[Al Thobiani, F., F. Gu and A. Ball (2011). Monitoring of cavitation in centrifugal pumps using a non-invasive capacitance sensor. Proc. 24th Int. Congress on Condition Monitoringand Diagnostics Engineering Management, Stavanger, Norway.##
Alfayez, L. and D. Mba (2004). Detection of incipient cavitation and best efficiency point in a 2.2MW centrifugal pump using acoustic emission. J. Acoustic Emission 22, 77-82.##
Alhashmi, S. A. (2005). Detection and Diagnosis of Cavitation in Centrifugal Pumps. Ph.D. Thesis, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester: Manchester.##
Alhashmi, S. A. (2013). Statistical analysis of acoustic signal for cavitation detection. In Proceeding of International Conference on Modern Trends in Science, Engineering and Technology (ICMTSET 2013), Dubai, UAE.##
Campos-Pozuelo, C., C. Granger, C. Vanhille, A. Moussatov and B. Dubus (2005). Experimental and theoretical investigation of the mean acoustic pressure in the cavitation field. Ultrason. Sonochem. 12(1), 79-84.##
Černetič, J. and M. Čudina (2012). Cavitation noise phenomena in centrifugal pumps. 5th Congress of Alps-Adria, Acoustics ssociation, 12-14, Petrčane, Croatia.##
Černetič, J., J. Prezelj and M. Cudina (2008). Use of noise and vibration signal for detecting and monitoring of cavitation in kinetic pumps. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 123(5), 3316-3316.##
Chudina, M. (2003). Noise as an indicator of cavitation in a centrifugal pump. Acoustical Physics 49(4), 463-474.##
Čudina, M. (2012). Monitoring of cavitation by sound in audible range and some new proposals for prevention cavitation in kinetic pumps. 5th Congress of Alps-Adria Acoustics Association 12-14, Petrčane, Croatia.##
Cudina, M. and J. Prezelj (2009). Detection of cavitation in the operation of kinetic pumps: Use of discrete frequency tone in audible pump spectra using audible sound. Applied Acoustics 70(4), 540-564.##
Franc, J. P. (2006). Physics and control of cavitation. Physics and Control of Cavitation. Educational Notes RTO-EN-AVT-143, Paper 2, 2-1–2-36.##
Gupta, S., V.K. Chouksey, and M.Srivastava, (2013) .Online detection of cavitation phenomenon in a centrifugal pump using audible sound. ITSI Transactions on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ITSI-TEEE), 1(5), 103-107.##
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Mostafa N., M. M. Karim and M. M. A. Sarker (2016). Numerical prediction of unsteady behavior of cavitating flow on hydrofoils using bubble dynamics cavitation model. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 9(4), 1829-1837.##
Moussatov, A., C. Granger and B. Dubus (2003-a). Cone-like bubble formation in ultrasonic cavitation field. Ultrason. Sonochem. 10(4), 191-195.##
Moussatov, A., C. Granger and B. Dubus (2005). Ultrasonic cavitation in thin liquid layers. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 12, 415-422.##
Moussatov, A., R. Mettin, C. Granger, T. Tervo, B. Dubus and W. Lauterborn (2003-b). Evolution of acoustic cavitation structure near larger emitting surface. WCU 2003, Paris, September, 7-10, 955-958.##
Park, C., H. Seol, K. Kim and W. Seong (2009). A Study on propeller noise source localization in a cavitation tunnel. Ocean Engineering 36- 754-762. ##
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]Effect of Reverting Channels on Heat Transfer Performance of Microchannels with Different Geometries22This study investigated the effect of reverting microchannels inside a heat sink on increase of cooling rate as well as the effect of their different configurations on maximum temperature and pressure drop. Based on the convection heat transfer mechanism, selection of the embedded microchannels’ configurations including circular, square and triangular ones, was studied for geometric optimization of the discussed heat sinks. The goal was to minimize the thermal resistance through optimizing the geometries. The volume ratio was defined as the ratio of the volume taken up by microchannels to the solid volume (portion of the heat sink not occupied by microchannels) and was considered as 0.05. According to the results, in addition to obtaining a more uniform temperature distribution, reverting channels remarkably reduced the maximum temperature. Moreover, the heat sink with square shape showed less thermal resistance as compared to the other two geometries.4153M.FarzanehDepartment of Mechanical engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.Department of Mechanical engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.paysmahsafarzaneh@ymail.comM. R.TavakoliDepartment of Mechanical engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.Department of Mechanical engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.paysmrtavak@cc.iut.ac.irM. R.SalimpourDepartment of Mechanical engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.Department of Mechanical engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.payssalimpour@cc.iut.ac.irGeometrical optimization Convective cooling Constructal theory CFD.[Constructal tree shaped networks for the distribution of electrical power. Energy Conversion and Management 44(6), 867-891.##
Bejan, A. (2000). Shape and structure from engineering to nature, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.##
Bejan, A. and G. Merkx (2007). Constructal Theory of Social Dynamics, Springer Verlag, New York.##
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Bejan, A. and S. Lorente (2010). The constructal law of design and evolution in nature. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 365(1545), 1335–1347.##
Bello-Ochende, T., L. Liebenberg and J. P. Meyer (2007). Constructal cooling channels for micro-channel heat sinks. International Journal of Heatand Mass Transfer 50, 4141-4150.##
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Dewan, A., P. Mahanta, K. S. Raju and P. S. Kumar (2004). Review of passive heat transfer augmentation techniques. Journal of Power Energy 218(A7), 509-527.##
Farzaneh, M., M. R. Salimpour and M. R. Tavakoli (2016). Designof bifurcating microchannels with/without loops for cooling of square-shapedelectronic components. Applied Thermal Engineering 108, 581-595.##
Fedorov, A. G. and R. Viskanta (2000). Three-dimensional conjugate heat transfer in the microchannel heat sink for lectronic packaging. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 43, 399-415.##
Ghaedamini, H., M. R. Salimpour and A.Campo, A. (2011). Constructal design of reverting microchannels for convective cooling of a circular disc. International Journal of Thermal Science 50, 1051-1061.##
Gosselin, L. and A. Bejan (2005). Emergence of asymmetry in constructal tree flow networks. Journal of Applied Physics 98(10).##
Hamedi, A., M. Shamshiri, M. Charmiyan and E. Shirani (2016). Investigation of nonlinear electrokinetic and rheological behaviors of typical non-newtonian iofluids through annular microchannels. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 9, 367-378.##
Heitor, A. and A. Bejan (2006) Constructal theory of global circulation and climate. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 49, 1857-1875.##
Kaya, F. (2016). Numerical investigation of effects of ramification length and angle on pressure drop and heat transfer in a ramified microchannel. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 9, 767-772.##
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Niazmand, H., A. M Jaghargh and M. Renksizbulut (2010). Slip-flow and heat transfer in isoflux rectangular microchannels with thermal creep effects. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 3, 33‐41.##
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]A New Approach to Reduce Memory Consumption in Lattice Boltzmann Method on GPU22Several efforts have been performed to improve LBM defects related to its computational performance. In this work, a new algorithm has been introduced to reduce memory consumption. In the past, most LBM developers have not paid enough attention to retain LBM simplicity in their modified version, while it has been one of the main concerns in developing of the present algorithm. Note, there is also a deficiency in our new algorithm. Besides the memory reduction, because of high memory call back from the main memory, some computational efficiency reduction occurs. To overcome this difficulty, an optimization approach has been introduced, which has recovered this efficiency to the original two-steps two-lattice LBM. This is accomplished by a trade-off between memory reduction and computational performance. To keep a suitable computational efficiency, memory reduction has reached to about 33% in D2Q9 and 42% in D3Q19. In addition, this approach has been implemented on graphical processing unit (GPU) as well. In regard to onboard memory limitation in GPU, the advantage of this new algorithm is enhanced even more (39% in D2Q9 and 45% in D3Q19). Note, because of higher memory bandwidth in GPU, computational performance of our new algorithm using GPU is better than CPU.5567M.SheidaSharif University of Technology, Tehran, IranSharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iranpayssheida.mojtaba@gmail.comM.Taeibi-RahniSharif University of Technology, Tehran, IranSharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iranpaystaeibi@sharif.eduV.EsfahanianUniversity of Tehran, Tehran, IranUniversity of Tehran, Tehran, Iranpaysevahid@ut.ac.irMemory reduction Optimization Computational performance Lattice boltzmann method (LBM).[Abe, T. (1997). Derivation of the lattice Boltzmann method by means of the discrete ordinate method for the Boltzmann equation. Journal of Computational Physics 131(1), 241-246.##
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]Numerical Study of Double Diffusive Convection in a Lid Driven Cavity with Linearly Salted Side Walls22Double diffusive convection phenomenon is widely seen in process industries, where the interplay between thermal and solutal (mass) buoyancy forces play a crucial role in governing the outcome. In the current work, double diffusive convection phenomenon in a lid driven cavity model with linearly salted side walls has been studied numerically using Finite element simulations. Top and bottom walls of the cavity are assumed cold and hot respectively while other boundaries are set adiabatic to heat and mass flow. The calculations of energy and momentum transport in the cavity is done using velocity-vorticity form of Navier-Stokes equations consisting of velocity Poisson equations, vorticity transport, energy and concentration equations. Galerkin’s weighted residual method has been implemented to approximate the governing equations. Simulation results are obtained for convective heat transfer for 100<Re<500, 50<N<50 and 0.1<Ri<3.0. The average Nusselt number along the hot wall of the cavity is observed to be higher for higher Richardson number when buoyancy ratio is positive and vice versa. Maximum Nusselt number is recorded at buoyancy ratio 50 and Richardson number 3.0, on the other hand low Nusselt number is witnessed for buoyancy ratio 50. 6979N.ReddyMechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee – 247 667, IndiaMechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee – 247 667, Indiapaysnithish@gmail.comK.MurugesanMechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee – 247 667, IndiaMechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee – 247 667, Indiapayskrimufme@iitr.ac.inDouble diffusive mixed convection Mass buoyancy force Convective heat transfer.[Achoubir, K., R. Bennacer, A. Cheddadi, M. EIGanaoui and E. Semma (2008). Numerical study of thermos solutal convection in enclosures used for directional solidification (Bridgman Cavity). FDMP 4(3), 199-209.##
Al-Amiri, A. M., K. M. Khanafar and I. Pop (2007). Numerical simulation of a combined thermal and mass transport in a square lid-driven cavity. International Journal of Thermal Science 46, 662-671.##
Al-Amiri, A. M., K. M. Khanafer and I. Pop (2007). Simulation of a Combined Thermal and Mass Transport in a Square Lid-Driven Cavity. International Journal of Thermal Science 46, 662 – 671 .##
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Bhadauria, B. S., P. G. Siddheshwar, A. K. Singh and K. G. Vinod (2016). A local nonlinear stability analysis of modulated double diffusive stationary convection in a couple stress liquid. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 9, (3), 1255-1264.##
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Chen, Z. W., J. M. Zhan, Y. S. Li, Y. Y. Luo and S. Cai (2013). Double-diffusive buoyancy convection in a square cuboid with horizontal temperature and concentration gradients. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 60, 422-431.##
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Gaikwad, S. N. and S. S. Kamble (2014). Linear stability analysis of double diffusive convection in a horizontal sparsely packed rotating anisotropic porous layer in presence of Soret effect. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 7(3), 459-471.##
Gaikwad, S. N. and S. S. Kamble (2016). Cross-diffusion effects on the onset of double diffusive convection in a couple stress fluid saturated rotating anisotropic porous layer. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 9(4), 1645-1654.##
Hasanuzzaman, M., M. M. Rahman, H. F. Öztop, N. A. Rahim and R. Saidur (2012). Effect of Lewis number on heat and mass transfer in a triangular cavity. International Communications in heat and mass transfer 39, 1213-1219.##
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Maatki, C., W. Hassen, L. Kolsi, N. AlShammari, B. M. Naceur and H. B. Aissia (2016). 3-D numerical study of hydro magnetic double diffusive natural convection and entropy generation in cubic cavity. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 9(4), 1915-1925.##
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Nazari, M., L. Louhghalam, M. H. Kayhani (2015). Lattice Boltzmann simulation of double diffusive natural convection in a square cavity with a hot square obstacle. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering 23, 22-30.##
Qin, Q., Z. A. Xia and Z. F. Tian (2014). High accuracy numerical investigation of double-diffusive convection in a rectangular enclosure with horizontal temperature and concentration gradients. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 71, 405-423.##
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Rani, H. P. and G. J. Reddy (2013). Soret and Dufour effects on transient double diffusive free convection of couple-stress fluid past a vertical cylinder. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 6(4), 545-554##
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]Numerical Investigation of Temporal Variation of Density Flow and Parameters22Experimental investigations and observations indicate that water quality modeling is related to the formation of flows in the dam reservoirs. Correct estimation of dam reservoir flow, plunging point and plunging depth are very important for the dam reservoir sedimentation and water quality problem. Therefore, inflow river-water into a dam is modeled in two dimensions through a reservoir with sloping bottom. The model is developed using nonlinear and unsteady continuity, momentum, energy and k-ε turbulence model equations. The equations of the model are solved based on the initial and boundary conditions of the dam reservoir flow for a range of bottom slopes. In addition to velocity, temperature and turbulence viscosity variation through the dam reservoir, the effects of density flow parameters such as plunging depths, plunging points, mixing rate are determined from the simulation results. The results of the present model are compared to the previous experimental works and the mathematical models. 8194F.ÜneşIskenderun Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Civil Engineering Department, Hydraulics Division, 31200, İskenderun, Hatay -TurkeyIskenderun Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Civil Engineering Department, Hydraulics Division, 31200, İskenderun, Hatay -Turkeypaysfatihunes66@gmail.comN.AğiralioğluIstanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Hydraulic Division, 34469, Maslak, İstanbul - TurkeyIstanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Hydraulic Division, 34469, Maslak, İstanbul - Turkeypaysnecati@itu.edu.trDensity current Mixing rate Plunging depth Densimetric Froude numbers Reservoir flow Temporal variation.[Akiyama, J. and G. H. Stefan (1984). Plunging flow into a reservoir theory. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 110, 484-489.##
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]Experimental Investigation on Supercavitating Flow over Parabolic Cavitators22In this paper experimental study was carried out to investigate supercavitation around parabolic cavitators. Various types of cavitators, such as disk, cone, and parabolic, were designed and manufactured. Also, the shape of the cavities formed behind these bodies were considered and compared. Dimensionless parameters such as dimensionless length and the diameter of the cavity as well as the dimensionless required air flow on the cavitators were obtained. The results showed that parabolic cavitators have an optimum design in comparison with the disk and cone cavitators due to their insignificant capability to reduce the drag force, yet the cavity’s length has a moderate size. It was also observed that this type of cavitator is capable of forming a cavity with a dimensionless length up to L/d= 33 and a dimensionless width up to D/d= 3.6. Moreover, parabolic cavitators require the highest amount of air injected in comparison with the cone and disk types; therefore, they operate in lower cavitation numbers. Since no other experimental data has been reported so far, this work reports the experimental characteristic behavior of parabolic cavitators.95102M.MoghimiMechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, 3114-16846, IranMechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, 3114-16846, Iranpaysmoghimi@iust.ac.irN. M.NouriMechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, 3114-16846, IranMechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, 3114-16846, Iranpaysmnouri@iust.ac.irE.MolaviMechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, 3114-16846, IranMechanical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, 3114-16846, Iranpaysmolavisml62@gmail.comSupercavitation Cavitation Parabolic cavitator Drag reduction.[Amromin, E. L. and A. N. Ivanov (1976). Axisymmetric cavitation behind a body in water tunnels. Fluid Dynamics 11, 532–7.##
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]Flow Control of Transonic Airfoils using Optimum Suction and Injection Parameters22In this paper, the application of the surface mass transfer optimization in shock wave-boundary layer interaction control at off-design conditions of transonic aircraft wing is presented. The suction or injection parameters include for example its position on the airfoil, its angle, the length of the hole and the rate of the injected or sucked flow. The optimization process is carried out using an efficient Genetic Algorithm (GA) method. The compressible viscous flow equations in Reynolds Averaged form are solved together with a two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model to accurately compute the objective function. Four different objective functions are introduced including maximum lift to drag ratio, minimum drag coefficient, maximum lift to drag ratio with no drag increment and minimum drag coefficient with no lift decrement. Effectiveness of each objective function is examined by comparing the optimum results in terms of the flow control parameters and flow characteristics.103115Z.Seifollahi MoghadamDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, 15875-4413, IranDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, 15875-4413, Iranpayszahraseifollahi2009@gmail.comA.JahangirianDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, 15875-4413, IranDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, 15875-4413, Iranpaysjahangirian1964@gmail.comAerodynamic optimization Genetic Algorithm Surface mass transfer Transonic flow control off-design conditions.[Anderson, W. K. and D. L. Bonhaus (1999). Airfoil design on unstructured grids for turbulent flow. AIAA Journail 37(2), 185-191.##
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]Analysis of Interrupted Rectangular Microchannel Heat Sink with High Aspect Ratio22A computational modelling of microchannel heat sinks with high aspect ratio has been performed to compare the geometrical features in the plane parallel to the heating surface and to determine the optimum configuration for the best heat transfer characteristics. A periodic thermal development of flow can cause significant heat transfer enhancement. A consensus on a particular geometrical configuration that provides the best heat transfer characteristics has not been reached in the literature, although many novel ideas have been proposed recently. Firstly the validity and applicability of microchannel sink modelling is presented followed by an optimization of parameters of interrupted microchannel heat sink. Consequences of the multichannel effect due to the introduction of transverse microchamber are also presented. It has been shown that the average Nusselt number of the microchannel heat sink increases by the introduction of a transverse microchamber with the additional advantage of a lower pressure drop. There exists an optimum width for the transverse microchamber for which the interrupted microchannel heat sink shows optimum characteristics. 117126H.KamalDepartment of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi - 110016, IndiaDepartment of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi - 110016, Indiapaysharshinkamal@gmail.comA.DewanDepartment of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi - 110016, IndiaDepartment of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi - 110016, Indiapaysadewan@am.iitd.ac.inMicrochannel heat sink Heat transfer enhancement Thermal redevelopment Flow interruption.[Barth, T. J. and D. Jespersen (1989). The design and application of upwind schemes on unstructured meshes. Technical Report AIAA-89-0366, AIAA 27th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nevada.##
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]Enhancement of Mixing Performance of Non-Newtonian Fluids using Curving and Grooving of Microchannels22In this study, a numerical investigation was performed on the mixing of non-Newtonian power-law fluids in curved micromixers with power-law indices between 0.49 and 1 and Reynolds numbers between 0.1-300. The properties of water and CMC solution were used for simulation of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid flows, respectively. The effects of grooves embedded on the bottom wall of micromixers and geometrical parameters such as depth and angle of grooves on mixing performance were examined. The mixing of non-Newtonian fluids using this kind of micromixers has not been studied before. Eventually, using of inclined grooves with 30° inclination angle was studied. Open source CFD code of OpenFOAM was utilized to simulate the mixing process. The results showed that the grooves caused chaotic advection and improved the mixing performance but had no significant effect on dimensionless pressure drop. Also, the grooves with 30◦ angle showed better mixing index for all values of power-law indices.127141S.Baheri IslamiFaculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 51666-14766, IranFaculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 51666-14766, Iranpaysbaheri@tabrizu.ac.irM.KhezerlooFaculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 51666-14766, IranFaculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 51666-14766, Iranpayssb.islami@gmail.comCurved micromixer Grooving Chaotic advection Non-Newtonian fluid Mixing index.[Afzal, A. and K. Y. Kim (2013). Mixing performance of passive micromixer with sinusoidal channel walls. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan 46(3), 230–238.##
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]Flow Characteristics of a Pipe Diffuser for Centrifugal Compressors22The pipe diffuser, an efficient kind of radial bladed diffuser, is widely used in centrifugal compressors for gas turbine engines. This paper investigates flow characteristics of a pipe diffuser for centrifugal compressors by solving three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results show that the pipe diffuser is adaptable to high Mach number incoming flows, and its unique leading edge could uniform the flow distortion. Numerical analysis indicates that the choke in pipe diffuser occurs suddenly, which leads to the dramatically steep performance curves near choke condition. Besides, it is found that the first half flow passage is particularly important to the pipe diffuser performance as it influences the choking behavior, the static pressure distribution, and the matching, so more attention should be paid to this region when designing or optimizing a pipe diffuser. Two counter-rotating vortices generated in the diffuser inlet region are captured by numerical simulation, and they can exist in the downstream of the diffuser passage. More detailed analysis show that these two vortices dominate the flow structure in the whole diffuser passage by shifting flow to certain positions and forming high-momentum flow cells and wake flow cells. The leading edge formed by the intersection of adjacent diffuser passages significantly affects this pair of vortices. In addition, these two vortices also affect the flow separation in pipe diffuser flow passages, they suppress separation near the front wall and back wall while facilitate separation at center locations. Therefore, it is recommended to design the leading edge of the pipe diffuser carefully to control the vortices and obtain a better flow field.143155Z.SunTurbomachinery Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Turbomachinery Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. payssunzz14@mails.tsinghua.edu.cnX.ZhengTurbomachinery Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Turbomachinery Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. payszhengxq@tsinghua.edu.cnZ.LinghuTurbomachinery Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Turbomachinery Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. payslhzl12@mails.tsinghua.edu.cnPipe diffuser Centrifugal compressor Flow characteristics Counter-rotating vortices CFD Flow separation.[Bennett, I., A. Tourlidakis and R. L. Elder (1998). Detailed measurements within a selection of pipe diffusers for centrifugal compressors. In Proceeding of ASME 1998 International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exhibition.##
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Ziegler, K. U., H. E. Gallus and R. Niehuis (2002, January). A study on impeller-diffuser interaction: part I — influence on the performance. In Proceeding of ASME Turbo Expo: Power for Land, Sea, and Air (545-556), American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ##
Ziegler, K. U., H. E. Gallus and R. Niehuis (2003). A study on impeller-diffuser interaction: part II — detailed flow analysis. Journal of Turbomachinery 125(1), 183-192.##]Numerical Investigation of Optimization of Injection Angle Effects on Fluidic Thrust Vectoring22A computational investigation was conducted to optimize the fluidic injection angle effects on thrust vectoring. Numerical simulation of fluidic injection for shock vector control, with a convergent-divergent nozzle concept was performed, using URANS approach with Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The fluidic injection angles from 60º to 120º were investigated at different aerodynamic and geometric conditions. The current investigation demonstrated that secondary injection angle is an essential parameter in fluidic thrust vectoring. Computational results indicated that, optimizing secondary injection angle would have positive impact on thrust vectoring performance. Furthermore, in most cases, decreasing expansion ratio of the nozzle with increasing NPR has negative impact on pitch thrust vector angle and thrust vectoring efficiency. That is, the highest pitch thrust vector angle is obtained by decreasing nozzle expansion ratio with increasing SPR in smaller fluidic injection angles. In addition, the current investigation attempted to initiate a database of optimized injection angles with different essential parameter effects on thrust vectoring, in order to guide the design and development of an efficient propulsion system.
157167F.ForghanyDepartment of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IranDepartment of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iranpaysfarzad_forghany@yahoo.comM.Taeibi-RahniDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, IranDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iranpaystaeibi@sharif.eduA.Asadollahi-GhohiehCivil Aviation Technology College, Tehran, IranCivil Aviation Technology College, Tehran, Iranpaysghohieh@yahoo.comThrust vectoring Shock vector control Optimal fluidic injection angle Expansion ratio.[Abdollahzadeh, M., F. Rodrigues, J. C. Páscoa and P. J. Oliveira (2015). Numerical Design and Analysis of a Multi-DBD Actuator Configuration for the Experimental Testing of ACHEON Nozzle Model. Aerospace Science and Technology 41(1), 259-273.##
Ali, A., G. Carlos, A. J. Neely and J. Young (2012, August). Combination of Thrust Modulation and Vectoring in a 2D Nozzle. In proceeding of The 48th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Atlanta, Georgia, AIAA Paper 2012-3780.##
Allmaras, S. R., F. T. Johnson and P. R., Spalart (2012). Modifications and Clarifications for the Implementation of the Spalart-Allmaras Turbulence Model. In proceeding of 7th International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics, Hawaii.##
Banazadeh, A., F. Saghafi, M. Ghoreyshi and P. Pilidis (2008). Experimental and Computational Investigation into the use of Co-Flow Fluidic Injection Effects on Fluidic Thrust Vectoring on a Small Gas Turbine. The Aeronautical Journal 112(1127), 17-25.##
Birken, P. (2012, October). Optimizing Runge-Kutta Smoothers for Unsteady Flow Problems. Electronic Transactions on Numerical Analysis 39(1), 298-312.##
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]Cross Flow past Circular Cylinder with Waviness in Confining Walls near the Cylinder22Two dimensional flow past circular cylinder confined by walls with local waviness near the cylinder has been studied. The aim of the present study is to identify the ability of the waviness to control vortex shedding, for which two different waviness configurations such as in-phase configurations (IPC) and out-phase configurations (OPC) are considered. Further, the effect of location of the local waviness with respect to the cylinder has also been studied. Air is the working fluid and the flow is assumed to be laminar and incompressible at Re=200. The finite volume based CFD solver Ansys Fluent (Version 15.0) is used for the computations. Flow characteristics such as drag, lift and Strouhal number are computed. Interesting shedding characteristics and drag reduction are observed due to the presence of local waviness. However, the significant factor is the location of waviness in the confining walls that leads to complete suppression of shedding. Among various locations and configurations of waviness studied, waviness in downstream with OPC3 suppresses the vortex shedding completely with reduced drag.183197R.DeepakkumarIndian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing Kancheepuram Chennai 600127, IndiaIndian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing Kancheepuram Chennai 600127, Indiapaysmdm13d002@iiitdm.ac.inS.JayavelIndian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing Kancheepuram Chennai 600127, IndiaIndian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing Kancheepuram Chennai 600127, Indiapayssjv@iiitdm.ac.inS.TiwariIndian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, IndiaIndian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Indiapaysshaligt@iitm.ac.inFlow past cylinder Laminar flow Wavy-wall confinement Vortex shedding control.[Anagnostopoulos, P. and G. Iliadis (1996). Numerical study of the blockage effects on viscous flow past a circular cylinder. International Journal of Numerical Methods in Fluids 22, 1061-1074.##
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]Scattering of Fexural Gravity Waves by a Two-Dimensional Thin Plate22An approximate analysis based on standard perturbation technique together with an application of Green’s integral theorem is used in this paper to study the problem of scattering of water waves by a two dimensional thin plate submerged in deep ocean with ice cover. The reﬂection and transmission coefﬁcients upto ﬁrst order are obtained in terms of the shape function describing the plate and are studied graphically for different shapes of the plate.199208S.BanerjeeDepartment of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, IndiaDepartment of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, Indiapayssudeshna.banerjea@yahoo.co.inP.MaitiFour year B. Tech. Course, Technology Campus, Calcutta University , JB 2, Sector III, Kolkata 700098, IndiaFour year B. Tech. Course, Technology Campus, Calcutta University , JB 2, Sector III, Kolkata 700098, Indiapaysmaitiparomita@yahoo.comD.MondalGovernment General Degree College at Kalna-1, Muragacha, Medgachi, Burdwan-713405, India.Government General Degree College at Kalna-1, Muragacha, Medgachi, Burdwan-713405, India.paysdibakar12.87@gmail.comWater wave scattering Two dimensional thin plate Nearly vertical plate Reﬂection coefﬁcient Transmission coefﬁcient.[Chakrabarti, A. (2000). On the solution of the prob-lem of scattering of surface water waves by the edge of an ice-cover. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 456, 1087-1099.##
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]Experimental Investigation of Laminar Convection Heat Transfer of Al2O3-Ethylene Glycol-Water Nanofluid as a Coolant in a Car Radiator22In this experimental study, heat transfer of a coolant nanofluid, obtained by adding alumina nanoparticles to Ethylene Glycol-water (60:40 by mass), in a car radiator has been investigated. For this purpose, an experimental setup has been designed and constructed. Firstly, to investigate the accuracy of the results, the experiments have been done for the base fluid. Then the experiments have been performed for the nanofluid with different nanoparticles volume fractions of 0.003, 0.006, 0.009 and 0.012. To ensure laminar flow regime three coolant flow rates of 9, 11 and 13 lit/min have been tested. The thermophysical properties have been calculated using the recently presented temperature dependent models in the literature. According to the results, both the convective heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number increase (about 9%) with increasing the coolant flow rate. Also, convective heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing the nanoparticles volume fraction. Although Nusselt number decreases when nanofluid is utilized, it enhances as the nanoparticles volume fraction increases. Based on the experimental results obtained, A new empirical correlation has been developed for average Nusselt number of Al2O3-EG-water nanofluid in developing region of flat tubes of car radiator for laminar flow and its maximum error is 3%.209219G. A.SheikhzadehDepartment of Thermo-fluids, faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Research Institute, University of Kashan, Kashan, IranDepartment of Thermo-fluids, faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Research Institute, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iranpayssheikhz@kashanu.ac.irM. M.FakhariDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.paysfakhari.mehdi@gmail.comH.KhorasanizadehDepartment of Thermo-fluids, faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Research Institute, University of Kashan, Kashan, IranDepartment of Thermo-fluids, faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Research Institute, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iranpayskhorasan@kashanu.ac.irExperimental study Car radiator Al2O3-Ethylene Glycol-water nanofluid Nusselt number.[Anoop, K. B., T. Sundararajan and S. K. Das (2009). Effect of particle size on the convective heat transfer in nanofluid in the developing region, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 52(9–10), 2189-2195.##
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]Prediction of Velocity-Dip-Position at the Central Section of Open Channels using Entropy Theory22An analytical model to predict the velocity-dip-position at the central section of open channels is presented in this study. Unlike the previous studies where empirical or semi-empirical models were suggested, in this study the model is derived by using entropy theory. Using the principle of maximum entropy, the model for dip-position is derived by maximizing the Shannon entropy function after assuming dimensionless dip-position at the central section as a random variable. No estimation of empirical parameter is required for calculating dip-position from the proposed model. The model is able to predict the location of maximum velocity at the central section of an open channel with any aspect ratio. The developed model of velocity-dip-position is tested with experimental data from twenty-two researchers reported in literature for a wide range of aspect ratio. The model is also compared with other existing empirical models. The present model shows good agreement with the observed data and provides least prediction error compared to other models.221229S.KunduDepartment of Basic Sciences and Humanities, IIIT Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751003, IndiaDepartment of Basic Sciences and Humanities, IIIT Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751003, Indiapayssnehasis18386@gmail.comVelocity-dip-phenomenon Shannon entropy Maximum entropy Lagranges multiplier Open channel turbulent flow.[Absi, R. (2011). An ordinary differential equation for velocity distribution and dip-phenomenon in open channel flows. Journal of Hydraulic Research 49(1), 82-89.##
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]Numerical Comparison of the Parameters Influencing the Turbulent Flow using a T-shaped Spur Dike in a 90° Bend22Spur dikes are used for river training purposes. To meet the navigability of rivers, the mean annual flow is considered; hence, in terms of river flooding, spur dikes are necessarily submerged. Considering the importance of submerged spur dikes, this paper studied the effects of a T-shaped spur dike’s submergence ratios on turbulent flow parameters in a 90° bend using the SSIIM as a commercial CFD model. The SSIIM numerical model solves the Navier-Stokes equations with the k- ε model on a three-dimensional, almost general, non-orthogonal grid. Submergence ratios of 0 (non-submerged), 5, 15, 25 and 50% were evaluated for parameters affecting the turbulent flow such as kinetic energy, pressure, eddy viscosity and the Froude number. It was observed that by increasing the spur dike submergence ratio from 0% (non-submerged) to 50%, in addition to changes in the values of pressure and kinetic energy, the Froude number changed in the bend and increased 2.1 times at the inner bank of the bend exit, and the eddy viscosity near the bed, which is the decisive factor of the turbulent flow, reduced by 42%. At the bed near the spur dike wing, the amount and range of kinetic energy reduced by increasing the submergence ratio. Near the bed, for all submergence ratios, the maximum pressure occurred at the upstream end of the spur dike.231241M.Vaghefi Civil Engineering Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, 7516913817, Iran Civil Engineering Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, 7516913817, Iranpaysvaghefi52@gmail.comY.Safarpoor Civil Engineering Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, 7516913817, Iran Civil Engineering Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, 7516913817, Iranpaysyasersafarpoor@yahoo.comM.Akbari Civil Engineering Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, 7516913817, Iran Civil Engineering Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, 7516913817, Iranpaysm.akbari@pgu.ac.irFroude number Kinetic energy SSIIM model Turbulent flow.[Abhari, M., M. Ghodsian, M. Vaghefi and N. Panahpur (2010). Experimental and numerical simulation of flow in a 90° bends. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation 21(3), 292-298.##
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]A Computational Study of High-Speed Microdroplet Impact onto a Smooth Solid Surface22Numerical solutions of high-speed microdroplet impact onto a smooth solid surface are computed, using the interFoam VoF solver of the OpenFOAM® CFD package. Toward the solid surface, the liquid microdroplet is moving with an impinging gas flow, simulating the situation of ink droplets being deposited onto substrate with a collimated mist jet in the Optomec Aerosol Jet® printing process. For simplicity and computational efficiency, axisymmetric incompressible flow is assumed here for the free-surface fluid dynamic problem. The computed values of maximum spread factor ξ, for the range of parameters relevant to Aerosol Jet® printing, are found in good agreement with some of the correlation formulas proposed by previous authors in the literature. A formula of improved accuracy is then obtained for evaluating ξ of Aerosol Jet® deposited droplets, by combining selected formulas from different authors with appropriate modifications. The computational results also illustrate droplet impact dynamics with lamella shape evolution throughout the spreading, receding-relaxation, and wetting equilibrium phases, consistent with that observed and described by many authors. This suggests a scale-invariant nature of the basic droplet impact behavior such that experiments with larger droplets at the same nondimensional parameter values may be applicable for studying microdroplet impact dynamics. Significant free surface oscillations can be observed with low viscosity droplets. The border line between free surface oscillations and aperiodic creeping to the capillary equilibrium shape appears at Oh ∼ 0.25. Droplet bouncing after receding is prompted with large contact angles at solid surface (as consistent with findings reported in the literature), but can be suppressed by increasing the droplet viscosity.243256J. Q.FengOptomec, Inc., 2575 University Avenue, Suite 135, St. Paul, Minnesota 55114, USAOptomec, Inc., 2575 University Avenue, Suite 135, St. Paul, Minnesota 55114, USApaysjfeng@optomec.comDrop impact Microdroplet Aerosol Jet® Volume-of-fluid (VoF) Computational analysis.[Alavi, S., M. Passandideh-Fard and J. Mostaghimi (2012). Simulation of semi-molten particle impacts including heat transfer and phase change. J. Therm. Spray Tech. 21(6), 1278-1293.##
Antonini, C., A. Amirfazli and M. Marengo (2012). Drop impact and wettability: From hydrophilic to superhydrophobic surfaces. Phys. Fluids 24, 102104##
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]Numerical Study on the Effect of Single Shallow Circumferential Groove Casing Treatment on the Flow Field and the Stability of a Transonic Compressor22The present research investigates the effect of the location and the width of single shallow circumferential groove casing treatment on the flow field and the stability improvement of NASA Rotor 37 utilizing the help of computational fluid dynamics. At first, steady state simulation of Rotor37 was presented for smooth casing (without groove). Then, forty five various grooved casing were simulated and compared with the smooth casing. The results indicated that narrow grooves had slight effect on the adiabatic efficiency but as the width of the groove was increased, a decline in efficiency was observed. The investigation on the stall margin revealed that narrow grooves next to the leading edge could improve the stall margin by a reduction in the size of vortex breakdown zone. Medium-width grooves displayed an effective role in delaying the separation- produced by shock wave and boundary layer interaction- on the blade suction side near the casing. This type of grooves could improve the stall margin more than narrow grooves when located on the top of separation zone near the blade suction side. Wide grooves had negative effect on the stall margin and caused a significant drop in the efficiency and the total pressure ratio of the compressor.257265M.Agha Seyed MirzabozorgDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan, IranDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan, Iranpaysmirzabozorg@mut-es.ac.irM.BazazzadehDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan, IranDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan, Iranpaysbazazzadeh@mut-es.ac.irM.HamzezadeDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan, IranDepartment of Aerospace Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Isfahan, Iranpaysmorteza.hamzehzadeh@gmail.comCircumferential groove Transonic compressor Stall margin CFD.[Beheshti, B. H., J. A. Teixeira, P. C. Ivey, K. Ghorbanian and B. Farhanieh (2004). Parametric study of tip clearance-casing treatment on performance and stability of a transonic axial compressor. Journal of Turbomachinery 126(4), 527-535.##
Chen, H., X. Huang, K. Shi, S. Fu, M. Ross, M. A. Bennington and et al. (2014). A computational fluid dynamics study of circumferential groove casing treatment in a transonic axial compressor. Journal of Turbomachinery 136(3).##
Chen, J. P., M. D. Hathaway and G. P. Herrick (2008). Prestall behavior of a transonic axial compressor stage via time-accurate numerical simulation. Journal of Turbomachinery 130(4). ##
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Dunham, J. (1998). CFD validation for propulsion system components (la validation CFD des organes des propulseurs). DTIC Document.##
Furukawa, M. et al. (2000). Unsteady flow behavior due to breakdown of tip leakage vortex in an axial compressor rotor at near-stall condition. ASME turbo expo: Power for land, sea, and air, American Society of Mechanical Engineers.##
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Huang, X., H. Chen and S. Fu (2008). CFD investigation on the circumferential grooves casing treatment of transonic compressor. ASME turbo expo 2000: Power for land, sea, and air, American Society of Mechanical Engineers.##
Wilke I., H. P. Kau (2004). A Numerical Investigation of the Flow Mechanisms in a High Pressure Compressor Front Stage with Axial Slots, Journal of turbomachinery, 126, 339.##
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Kim, J. H., K. J. Choi and K. Y. Kim (2013). Aerodynamic analysis and optimization of a transonic axial compressor with casing grooves to improve operating stability. Aerospace. Science and Technology 29(1), 81-91. ##
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Legras, G., I. Trébinjac, N. Gourdain, X. Ottavy and L. Castillon (2012). A novel approach to evaluate the benefits of casing treatment in axial compressors. International Journal of Rotating Machinery.##
Legras, G., N. Gourdain and I. Trebinjac (2010). Numerical analysis of the tip leakage flow field in a transonic axial compressor with circumferential casing treatment. Journal of Thermal Science 19(3), 198-205.##
Menter, F. R. (2009). Review of the shear-stress transport turbulence model experience from an industrial perspective. International Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics 23(4), 305-316##
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Sakuma, Y., T. Watanabe, T. Himeno, D. Kato, T. Murooka and Y. Shuto (2014). Numerical analysis of flow in a transonic compressor with a single circumferential casing groove- influence of groove location and depth on Flow instability. Journal of Turbomachinery 136.##
Shabbir, A. and J. J. Adamczyk (2005). Flow mechanism for stall margin improvement due to circumferential casing grooves on axial compressors. Journal of Turbomachinery 127(4), 708-717.##
Taghavi-Zenouz, R. and S. Eslami (2013). Effects of casing treatment on behavior of tip leakage flow in an isolated axial compressor rotor blade row. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers 36(7), 819-830. ##
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]Effect of Liquid Viscosity and Solid Inventory on Hydrodynamics in a Liquid - solid Circulating Fluidized Bed22A comprehensive hydrodynamic study of a Liquid - Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed (LSCFB) is conducted with changes in viscosity of the fluidizing medium and the inventory height of solids initially fed into the system. An LSCFB of height 2.95m and riser outer diameter 0.1m was chosen for experimentation. The three liquid media systems with varying viscosities that were chosen were water, glycerol 10% (v/v) and glycerol 20% (v/v). Effect of inventory on the hydrodynamics was also studied, by taking initial heights of inventory to be 15cm, 25cm and 35cm. The hydrodynamic studies concentrated on pressure gradients along the axial pressure tapings, axial solid holdup, average solid holdup, solid circulation rate and slip velocity. Uniformity in axial solid holdup and average solid holdup was validated for changes in viscosity and inventory. Solid flux was seen to follow an inverse relationship to holdup. The changes in slip velocity with varying viscosity and inventory were studied, and found to decrease with both variables. The distribution parameter, Co of the drift flux model was found to be in the range of 0.983-0.994, suggesting non-uniformity in radial solid distribution, with higher solid concentration by the walls compared to the core of the column.267274N.GnanasundaramChemical Engineering Division, School of Mechanical and Building sciences, VIT University, Vellore-632014, IndiaChemical Engineering Division, School of Mechanical and Building sciences, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Indiapaysgsnirmala@vit.ac.inA.VenugopalDepartment of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore – 117456Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore – 117456paysaswinvgl@gmail.comG.UllasChemical Engineering Division, School of Mechanical and Building sciences, VIT University, Vellore-632014, IndiaChemical Engineering Division, School of Mechanical and Building sciences, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Indiapaysgokul.ullas@gmail.comY.KatragaddaChemical Engineering Division, School of Mechanical and Building sciences, VIT University, Vellore-632014, IndiaChemical Engineering Division, School of Mechanical and Building sciences, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Indiapaysyesaswinik94@gmail.comFluidization Liquid - solid circulating fluidized bed Solid holdup Solid circulation rate Slip velocity Viscosity and inventory.[Berruti, F., J. Chaoki, L. Godfroy, T. S. Pugsley and G. S. Patience (1995). Hydrodynamics of Circulating Fluidized Bed Risers, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 73, 579-601##
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Eldyasti, A., N. Chowdhury, G. Nakhlaa and J. Zhub (2010). Biological nutrient removal from leachate using a pilot liquid–solid circulating fluidized bed bioreactor (LSCFB). J. Hazard. Mater. 181, 289-297.##
Feng, X., S. Jing, Q. Wu, J. Chen and C. Song (2003). The hydrodynamic behavior of the liquid– solid circulating fluidized bed ion exchange system for cesium removal. Powder Technol. 134, 235-242.##
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Lan, Q., A. S. Bassi, J. X. Zhu and A. Margaritis (2002). Continuous Protein Recovery from Whey Using Liquid - solid Circulating Fluidized Bed Ion-Exchange Extraction. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 78, 2.##
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]Identification of Drag Force of the Underwater Vehicles22An inverse analysis is conducted for the estimation of drag coefficient and wake’s width in incompressible turbulent flows over the moving underwater bodies. The inverse analysis uses the laws of momentum and mass conservation for a control volume to estimate the drag coefficient and the wake’s width from the measured velocity in the wake. The drag coefficient and wake’s width are determined as unknown parameters by the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The proposed inverse method is applicable for an environment without boundaries (e.g., the sea). Several experiments are conducted to evaluate the developed inverse algorithm. The wake velocity behind a cylinder located in the flow field is measured by a calibrated pitot tube and is used as an input to the algorithm. The cylinder is selected as the test body, because its hydrodynamic information is available in the literature. The effects of the tunnel’s wall and the turbulence intensity are considered in the results of the algorithm. The estimated drag coefficient is validated by the values presented in the literature. The estimated wake-velocity profiles are fitted favorably with the measured velocities at the corresponding locations. It is shown that the proposed inverse method can be used to estimate the drag coefficient and wake’s width of the underwater vehicles with very good accuracy.
275281Y.JahangardyIran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, IranIran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iranpaysjahangardy@iust.ac.irR.MadoliatIran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, IranIran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iranpaysmadoliat@iust.ac.irN. M.NouriIran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, IranIran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iranpaysmnouri@iust.ac.irInverse method Drag force identification Wake velocity profile. [Yang, S. Q. and D. H. Ding (2014). Drag-reducing flows in laminar-turbulent transition region. J. Fluids Eng. 136(10). ##
Akindoyo, E. O. and H. A. Abdulbari (2016). Investigating the drag reduction performance of rigid polymer–carbon nanotubes complexes. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 9(3), 1041-1049.##
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Amromin, E. L., (2013), Vehicles Drag Reduction with Control of Critical Reynolds Number. J. Fluids Eng, 135(10).##
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Ghassabi, G. and M. Kahrom (2015). Investigating Flat Plate Drag Reduction using Taguchi Robust Design. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 8(4), 855-862.##
Grysa, K., A. Maciag and J. A. Krasa (2014). Trefftz functions applied to direct and inverse non-Fourier heat conduction problems. J. Heat Transfer 136(9).##
Jafargholinejad, S., A. Pishevar and K. Sadeghy (2011). On the use of rotating-disk geometry for evaluating the drag-reducing efficiency of polymeric and surfactant additives. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 4(2), 1-5.##
Jordan, S. A. (2014). Understanding tow tank measurements of total drag for long thin circular cylinders. J. Fluids Eng 136(3).##
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Su, J. and A. J. Silva Neto (2001). Simultaneous estimation of inlet temperature and wall heat flux in turbulent circular pipe flow. Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A 40 (7), 751-766.##
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]Effect of Geometry Modifications on the Vectoring Performance of a Controlled Jet22Jet vectoring performances of ten different designs with various depths and geometrical outlines were quantified through constant temperature anemometry measurements for a Reynolds number range from 10,000 to 30,000 by using passive and active flow control methods at cold flow. The reference design was based on NASA’s double throat nozzle concept and a self-injection double throat nozzle design that uses similar flow control concept as the reference design, were also tested for performance comparison. Furthermore, jet vectoring performance of a single throat design, utilizing Coanda effect for jet vectoring, was also quantified. Results indicated jet vectoring angles starting from 2° up to 47° for a control jet flow rate range from 1% up to 10% with respect to the primary jet flow rate in the investigated Re range. Maximum jet vectoring angle was achieved with a single throat design which incorporates small step geometry before the Coanda surface for more effective flow attachment and these results were compared with the vectoring performance of the double throat nozzle designs.
283291M. N.TomacDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Abdullah Gul University, Kayseri, 38080, TurkeyDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Abdullah Gul University, Kayseri, 38080, Turkeypaysmntomac@yahoo.comJet vectoring Active flow control Constant temperature anemometry.[Albertson, M. L., Y. B. Dai, R. A. Jensen and H. Rouse (1950). Diffusion of Submerged Jets. ASCE Trans. 115, 639-697.##
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]Heat Transfer Analysis of Flat Plate Subjected to Multi-Jet Air Impingement using Principal Component Analysis and Computational Technique22The aim of this work is to investigate experimentally the variation in temperature, heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number of a hot plate subjected to multi-jet air impingement cooling to use the multi-objective optimization technique to arrive at optimum conditions. A flat plate of 15 cm x 10 cm is heated through a heating foil with a constant heat flux of 7667 W/m2. Air jets with and without swirling action are considered, fixing the distance of target surface from nozzle exit at 2D, 4D and 6D. Reynolds numbers 18000, 20000and 22000 and pipe diameters 8mm, 10mm and 12 mm have been considered for investigation. Experiments are designed and analyzed using Taguchi’s technique, coupled with principal component analysis for multi-variate optimization by calculating multi-response performance index (MRPI). Based on the observations made, it is concluded that lower H/D ratio and higher Reynolds number result in higher heat transfer coefficient, in accordance with the first principles. Heat transfer coefficient obtained for jets with swirl is compared with that of jet without swirling for the same Reynolds number and H/D ratio. Furthermore, it is concluded that introducing swirl results in increase of heat transfer coefficients for all the test conditions for 10mm and 12mm diameter jets. However for 8mm jet, introduction of swirl reduced the heat transfer rate for all the test conditions. From Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), it is found that significant contributions on outputs are due to the effect of H/D ratio and Reynolds number. Confirmation experiments with optimum condition result in improved heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number. Numerical simulation has also been performed with the optimum condition. It is observed that the simulation results are in consistence with the experimental results.293306P.ChandramohanDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Misrimal Navajee Munoth Jain Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Misrimal Navajee Munoth Jain Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.paysdrmpchandramohan@gmail.comS. N.MurugesanDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.paysmurugesan.sn@rajalakshmi.edu.inS.ArivazhaganDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.paysarivazhagan_s@yahoo.comHeat transfer Jet impingement cooling Swirl impingement jet cooling Principal component analysis.[Abrantes, J. K. and L. F. A. Azevedo (2006). Fluid Flow Characteristics of a Swirl Jet Impinging on a Flat Plate. In Proceedings of the thirteenth International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal.##
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]Free Surface Thin Film Flow of a Sisko’s Fluid over a Surface Topography22The flow of a thin film down an inclined surface over topography is considered for the case of liquids with Sisko’s model viscosity. For the first time lubrication theory is used to reduce the governing equations to a non-linear evolution equation for a current of a Sisko’s model non-Newtonian fluid on an inclined plane under the action of gravity and the viscous stresses. This model is solved numerically using an efficient Full Approximation Storage (FAS) multigrid algorithm. Free surface results are plotted and carefully examined near the topography for different values of power-law index np, viscosity parameter m, the aspect ratio A and for different inclination angle of the plane with the horizontal. Number of complications and additional physical effects are discussed that enrich real situations. It is observed that the flows into narrow trenches develop a capillary ridge just in front of the upstream edge of a trench followed by a small trough. For relatively small width trenches, the free surface is almost everywhere flat as the dimensional width of the trench is much smaller than the capillary length scale. In this region, surface tension dominates the solution and acts so as to stretch a membrane across the trench leading to smaller height deviations. The ridge originates from the topographic forcing which works to force fluid upstream immediately prior to the trench before helping to accelerate it over. The upstream forcing slows down the fluid locally and increases the layer thickness. 307317R. A.ShahBasic Sciences and Islamiat Department. The University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, PakistanBasic Sciences and Islamiat Department. The University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistanpaysmmrehan79@yahoo.comP.GaskelSchool of Engineering and Computing Sciences, The University of Durham, DHI 3LE, United KingdomSchool of Engineering and Computing Sciences, The University of Durham, DHI 3LE, United Kingdompaysp.h.gaskel@durham.ac.ukS.VeremieievSchool of Engineering and Computing Sciences, The University of Durham, DHI 3LE, United KingdomSchool of Engineering and Computing Sciences, The University of Durham, DHI 3LE, United Kingdompayss.veremieiev@durham.ac.ukThin films Free surface flows Non-newtonian films Trench topography Long wave Approximation Finite elements.[Decré, M. M. J. and J. C. Baret (2003). Gravity-driven flows of viscous liquids over two-dimensional topographies. J. Fluid Mech. 487, 147-166.##
Gaskell, P. H., P. K. Jimack, M. Sellier and H. M. Thompson (2004). Efficient and accurate time adaptive multigrid simulation of droplet spreading. Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids 45, 1161-1186.##
Gaskell, P. H., P. K. Jimack, M. Sellier, H. M. Thompson and M. C. T. Wilson (2004). Gravity-driven flow of continuous thin liquid films on non-porous subsrates with topography. J. Fluid Mech. 509, 253-280.##
Gramlich, C. M., S. Kalliadasis, G. M. Homsy and C. Messer (2002). Optimal levelling of flowover one-dimensional topography by Marangoni stresses. Phys. Fluids 14, 1841-1850.##
Hayes, M., S. B. G. O’Brien and J. H. Lammers (2000). Green’s function for steady flow over a small two-dimensional topography. Phys. Fluids 12, 2845-2858.##
Kalliadasis, S. and G. M. Homsy (2001). Stability of free-surface thin-film flows over topography J. Fluid Mech. 448, 387-410.##
Kalliadasis, S., C. Bielarz and G. M. Homsy (2000). Steady free-surface thin film flows over topography. Phys. Fluids 12, 1889-1898.##
Khayat, R. E. and S. Welke (2001). Influence of inertia, gravity and substrate topography on the two-dimensional transient coating flow of a thin Newtonian fluid film. Phys. Fluids 13, 355-368.##
Kim, K. M. and R. E. Khayat (2002). Transient coating ﬂow of a thin non-Newtonian ﬂuid ﬁlm. Phys. Fluids 14, 2202-2215.##
Mazouchi, A. and G. M. Homsy (2001). Free surface Stokes flow over topography. Phys. Fluids 13, 2751-2761.##
Saprykini, S., R. J. Koopmans and S. Kalliadasis (2007). Free-surface thin-ﬁlm ﬂows over topography: inﬂuence of inertia and viscoelasticity. J. Fluid Mech. 578, 271-293.##
Sisko, A. W. (1958). The flow of lubricating greases. Ind. Engg. Chem. 50, 1789-1792.##
Sisko, A. W. (1960). Capillary viscometer for non-Newtonian liquids. Colloid Sci. 15, 89-96.##
Veremieiev, S., H. M. Thompson, Y. C. Lee and P. H. Gaskell (2010). Inertial thin film flow on planar surfaces featuring topography. Comput. Fluids 39, 431–450.##
Veremieiev, S., P. H Gaskell, Y. C Lee and H. M. Thompson (2011). Predicting three-dimensional inertial thin film flow over micro-scale topography. Computational Fluid Dynamics-Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics, ICCFD 2010, 833-838.##
]Two-Dimensional Transient Modeling of Energy and Mass Transfer in Porous Building Components using COMSOL Multiphysics22This paper reports on a transient heat, air and moisture transfer (HAM) model. The governing partial-differential equations are simultaneously solved for temperature and capillary pressure through multi-layered porous media, including the non-linear transfer and storage properties of materials. Using partial differential equations functions, some thermo-physical properties of porous media are converted into coefficients depending on temperature and capillary pressure. Major features of the model are multi-dimensional and transient coupling of heat, air and moisture transport. The coupled equations are solved using the COMSOL Multiphysics time-dependent solver. This solver enables HAM (Heat, Air, Moisture) modeling in porous media. Besides, the good agreements obtained with a 2D benchmark suggest that the model can be used to assess the hygrothermal performance of building envelope components. This paper concludes that the total heat flux in the insulated wall represents only the quarter of that crossing the uninsulated concrete roof. On the other hand, the concrete having the lowest water vapour permeability of all used materials allows maintaining the vapour pressure levels close to the initial value (103 Pa). This induces a situation of interstitial condensation within the concrete of the roof. Being able to evaluate the hygrothermal behaviour, the proposed model may turn out to be a valuable tool to solve other building problems.319328M.MalikiLCTPE Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Abdelhamid Ibn Badis, Mostaganem, AlgeriaLCTPE Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Abdelhamid Ibn Badis, Mostaganem, Algeriapaysmus27000@yahoo.frN.LaredjLCTPE Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Abdelhamid Ibn Badis, Mostaganem, AlgeriaLCTPE Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Abdelhamid Ibn Badis, Mostaganem, Algeriapaysnad27000@yahoo.frK.BendaniLCTPE Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Abdelhamid Ibn Badis, Mostaganem, AlgeriaLCTPE Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Abdelhamid Ibn Badis, Mostaganem, Algeriapaysbendanik@yahoo.frH.MissoumLCTPE Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Abdelhamid Ibn Badis, Mostaganem, AlgeriaLCTPE Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Abdelhamid Ibn Badis, Mostaganem, Algeriapayshanifimissoum@yahoo.frNumerical modeling Moisture Heat Porous media Capillary pressure[Carmeliet, J., H. Hens, S. Roels, O. Adan, H. Brocken, R. J. Cernik, Z. Pavlik and C. Hall (2004). Determination of the liquid water diffusivity from transient moisture transfer experiments. Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science 27, 277-305.##
CEN/TC89 WG10 (2007). Hygrothermal performance of building components and building elements - Assessment of moisture transfer by numerical simulation (prenormative text).##
COMSOL (2011). Multiphysics Modeling and Simulation Software.##
De Vries, D. A. (1958). Simultaneous Transfer of Heat and Moisture in Porous Materials. Transaction of the American Geophysical Union 39, 909-916.##
Defraeye, T., B. Blocken and J. Carmeliet (2012). Analysis of convective heat and mass transfer coefficients for convective drying of a porous flat plate by conjugate modelling. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55(1-3), 112-124.##
dos Santos, G. H. and N. Mendes (2009). Combined Heat, Air and Moisture (HAM) Transfer Model for Porous Building Materials. Journal of Building Physics 32, 203-220.##
Duforestel, T. (1992). Metrological Basics and Models for the Simulation of Hygrothermal Behavior of building components and structures. Ph. D. thesis, École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, France.##
Hagentoft, C. E. (2002). HAMSTAD - Final report: Methodology of HAM-modeling. Rep. R-02:8. Gothenburg, Department of Building Physics, Chalmers University of Technology.##
Hagentoft, C. E., A. Kalagasidis, B. Adl-Zarrabi, S. Roels, J. Carmeliet, H. Hens, J. Grunewald, M. Funk, R. Becker, D. Shamir, O. Adan, H. Brocken, K. Kumaran and R. Djebbar (2004). Assessment Method of Numerical Prediction Models for Combined Heat, Air and Moisture Transfer in Building Components: Benchmarks for One-dimensional Cases. Journal of Thermal Envelope and Building Science 27(4), 327-352.##
Hens, H. (2007). Building Physics-Heat, Air and Moisture, Fundamentals and Engineering Methods with Examples and Exercises. Ernst and Sohn A Wiley Com.##
Janssen, H., B. Blocken and J. Carmeliet (2007). Conservative modeling of the moisture and heat transfer in building components under atmospheric excitation. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 50(5-6), 1128-1140.##
Korjenic, A., T. Bednar (2012). An analytical solution of a moisture transfer problem for coupled room and building component. Energy and Building 47, 254 - 259.##
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Langmans, J., A. Nicolai, R. Klein and S. Roels (2012). A quasi-steady state implementation of air convection in a transient heat and moisture building component model. Building and Environment 58, 208 - 218.##
Litavcova, E., A. Korjenic, S. Korjenic, M. Pavlus, I. Sarhadov, J. Seman and T. Bednar (2014). Diffusion of moisture into building materials: A model for moisture transport. Energy and Building 68, 558-561.##
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]Similarity Solution for a Cylindrical Shock Wave in a Self-gravitating, Rotating Axisymmetric Dusty Gas with Heat Conduction and Radiation Heat Flux22Similarity solutions are obtained for unsteady adiabatic propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in a self gravitating, rotating, axisymmetric dusty gas with heat conduction and radiation heat flux in which variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston. The dusty gas is taken to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles. Azimuthal fluid velocity and axial fluid velocity in the ambient medium are taken to be variable. The equilibrium flow conditions are assumed to be maintained. The initial density is assumed to be constant. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier’s law and the radiation is taken to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The effects of the variation of the gravitational parameter and the heat transfer parameters on the shock strength and the flow variables such as radial velocity, azimuthal velocity, axial velocity, density, pressure, total heat flux, mass behind the shock front, azimuthal vorticity vector, axial vorticity vector, isothermal speed of sound and adiabatic compressibility are studied. It is found that the presence of gravitation effect in the medium modify the radiation and conduction effect on the flow variables.329341R.BajargaanDepartment of Mathematics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, IndiaDepartment of Mathematics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, Indiapaysduruchi11@gmail.comA.PatelDepartment of Mathematics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, IndiaDepartment of Mathematics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007, Indiapaysapatel@maths.du.ac.inShock wave Self similar solution Dusty gas Self gravitation Conduction and radiation heat flux.[Babu, P. R., J. A. Rao and S. Sheri (2014). Radiation effect on MHD heat and mass transfer Flow over a shrinking sheet with mass suction. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 7(4), 641-650.##
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]Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Drag Force at High Speed Diver Motion in Different Depths from Free Surface22In this study, the drag force exerted on diver body is investigated by computational fluid dynamic and then the results validity is compared with towing tank experiments. The final target of this research is to evaluate thruster power for diver to reach the high speed motion underwater. In the last decade, the low speed diver motion has been studied by researchers for sport purposes and improvement of diving time, while in this research authors have tried to increase diver speed up to 10 ms-1 by use of electrical thruster mechanism. The numerical simulations are done by computational fluid dynamics considering three dimensional two phase turbulent flow. The geometry of the swimmers' bodies was generated by 3-D scanning and image modeling of real divers in experimental diving test. Different turbulent models might be applied in specific case but the favorable one (k– method) is selected for estimating the forces on the divers. The experiments are done by five divers and one mannequin with 5 depths and 9 speeds. The numerical simulation results agree well with those of experimental tests in range up to 8 ms-1 but because of lab limitations more results between 8 ms-1 and 10 ms-1 were not accessible.343352M. R.SadeghizadehDepartment of Hydro-Aerodynamic Research Center of Malek-e Ashtar University of Technology, Shiraz, IranDepartment of Hydro-Aerodynamic Research Center of Malek-e Ashtar University of Technology, Shiraz, Iranpaysmr_sadeghizadeh@yahoo.comB.Saranjamof Air-Naval Complex of Malek-e Ashtar University of Technology, Shiraz, Iranof Air-Naval Complex of Malek-e Ashtar University of Technology, Shiraz, Iranpayssaranjam@shirazu.ac.irR.KamaliSchool of Mechanic Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IranSchool of Mechanic Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iranpayskamali@shirazu.ac.irDivers drag force CFD Towing test[Bixler, B. S. and M. Schloder (1996). Computational Fluid Dynamics: An analytical tool for the 21st century swimming scientist. Journal of Swimming Research 4-22.##
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Zhu, X. Y. (2006). Application of the CIP method to strongly nonlinear wave-body interaction problems. Ph. D. thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.##]Analytical and Numerical Studies of a Steam Ejector on the Effect of Nozzle Exit Position and Suction Chamber Angle to Fluid Flow and System Performance22Nozzle exit position [NXP] plays a vital role in the performance of the ejector, but its values are specified in a range for the required operating condition. In this study instead of the range of values, a specific value, named as entrainment diameter is developed and its effect on the performance of the ejector is studied for several combinations of suction chamber angle using numerical method. The effect of the condenser and boiler pressures on the performance of the ejector are also studied to ensure the off-design operating conditions. The entrainment diameter of an ejector is derived analytically by solving one dimensional compressible fluid flow equations using MATLAB. To study the effect of entrainment diameter on the performance of the ejector, CFD technique is employed. Analytical and numerical results are validated with experimental data available in the previous studies. For 7 kW refrigeration capacity, it is inferred that the suction chamber angle of 18° and the corresponding entrainment diameter 90.8 mm with the NXP of 23.62 mm yield the maximum entrainment ratio. The study predicts that the performance of the ejector is highly influenced by the pressure increment at the exit of the nozzle, while the suction chamber angle is between 12° to 21°.369378A. S.RameshDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, St. Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering, Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu, 629003, IndiaDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, St. Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering, Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu, 629003, Indiapaysasrameshg7@gmail.comS.Joseph SekharDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, St. Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering, Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu, 629003, IndiaDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, St. Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering, Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu, 629003, Indiapaysjosephsekhar@hotmail.comCFD Entrainment diameter Nozzle exit position Steam jet ejector Suction chamber angle.[Ameur, K., Z. Aidoun and M. Ouzzane (2015). Analysis of the critical conditions and the effect of slip in two-phase ejectors. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 9, Special Issue 2, 213-222.##
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]A Novel Approach for Measurement of Peak Expiratory Velocity22It is well known that behind the orifice in a pipe, flow velocity increases and pressure decreases simultaneously. The generated sound appears that is caused by the pressure fluctuations that occur as the flow passes through the orifice. Then the flow velocity is averaged over a pipe cross-section and is considered as a constant, it can be seen that the amplitude of sound increases with increases in the expiratory velocity. An experimental study of the quantitative analysis of sound pressure level correlated with expiratory velocity in a pipe was conducted using an apparatus that includes an air pump in conjunction with a pipe, a microphone, and an orifice plate, among other instruments. The regression and analysis of the results shows that the pressure fluctuation of sound spectra can be correlated to the expiratory velocity of a pipe. The experiment is conducted under conditions where the air passing through the orifice has an averaged expiratory velocity ranging from 0.88 m/sec to 1.35 m/sec, an inlet temperature of 298.15 K, and where the outlet pressure is that of the atmosphere. In this experiment, the Mach number is very low, and the compressibility effects can be ignored. The obstacle orifice plate was placed in the center of the pipe, and a microphone was mounted flush downstream to acquire the sound pressure data on the pipe wall. The measured results show that the approach for measuring the expiratory velocity using a microphone can be justified, and there exists a good correlation between the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of sound pressure fluctuation and the peak expiratory velocity.379387C. C.WuDepartment of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan ROCDepartment of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan ROCpaysp47911017@hotmail.comF. M.YuDepartment of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan ROCDepartment of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan ROCpaysfmyu@mail.ncku.edu.twPeak expiratory velocity Wall-pressure spectra pipe flow PSD.[(1990). AGA 3.1: Orifice metering of natural gas and other related hydrocarbon fluids: Part 1, American Gas Association, Washington, 6-37.##
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]Mathematical Modeling of the Flow of Diesel-CNG Fuel Mixture in a Pipe under the Influence of a Magnetic Field22Horizontal bubbly flow is encountered in various gas and oil facilities and industrial systems. Bubbly flow is characterized by the ability to provide large interfacial areas for heat and mass transfer. Nonetheless, horizontal bubbly flow orientation has received less attention when compared to vertical bubbly flow. This paper presents development of mathematical model and discusses the results obtained from the simulation of hydro-magnetic flow of Diesel-CNG fuel mixture in a horizontal pipe, as predicted by the developed model. The fundamental equations of unsteady, two-phase liquid-gas under an imposed magnetic field were derived and presented. Derivation procedure of the velocity distribution of the liquid and gas phases and the inverse Stokes’ number of a bubbly flow are presented. These governing nonlinear partial-differential equations have been solved numerically using a Fourier–Bessel series. Results obtained from the model solution show that the axial velocities of liquid and gas, in laminar flow, have decreased and the slip ratio has increased with the increase of the magnetic field intensity. While, the magnetic field parameter, Ha increased the probability of decreasing the bubbles radii and increasing the bubbles number (n.Rb).389396H. A.Abdul WahhabMechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Seri Iskandar, 32610, MalaysiaMechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Seri Iskandar, 32610, Malaysiapaysabu_ameer5@yahoo.comA. R.A. AzizMechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Seri Iskandar, 32610, MalaysiaMechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Seri Iskandar, 32610, Malaysiapaysrashid@petronas.com.myH.H. Al-KayiemMechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Seri Iskandar, 32610, MalaysiaMechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Seri Iskandar, 32610, Malaysiapaysabu_nasif@yahoo.comM.S. NasifMechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Seri Iskandar, 32610, MalaysiaMechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Seri Iskandar, 32610, Malaysiapaysabu_ameer6@yahoo.comFuel technology Liquid-gas fuel mixer Magnetic field Two phase hydro-magnetic flow. [Abdul Wahhab, H. A., A. R. A. Aziz, H. H. Al-Kayiem and M. S. Nasif (2015). Modeling of diesel/CNG mixing in a pre-injection chamber. 3rd International Conference Mechanic Engineering Research, IOP Conference Series. 100.##
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]Force Generation Mechanisms by an Insect Wing in an Idealized Hovering Motion22An Unsteady force generation mechanisms (delayed stall, wake capture and rotational lift) during idealized hovering of insect flight at Reynolds number (Re) of 136 have been identified in this research. Dependence of flow physics on Re forms the basis of present study to observe the dependence of unsteady force generation mechanisms on Re. A systematic study has been carried out by increasing Re from 136 to 4000 to investigate persistence of delayed stall, wake capture and rotational lift phenomenon. Using the solution of 3D Navier-Stokes equations, the aerodynamic force and the detailed flow structure around the wing are obtained which can provide useful insights into mechanism of unsteady force generation during idealized hovering at Re=4000. After grid and Mach number sensitivity analysis, the results are compared with previous studies at Re=136 for the code validation. The aerodynamic force and flow structure of a wing performing hovering motion at Re=4000 is calculated by solving Navier-Stokes equations. Re=4000 is selected on the premise that the length scale (mean aerodynamic chord) becomes closer to a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV); furthermore 30 times increase in Re (from 136 to 4000) is considered sufficient to assess changes in flow physics while remaining in laminar flow regime. Calculations are conducted for idealized hovering motion during which stroke 1 is initiated in still air, followed by flipping motion for reversing the direction and then stroke 2 (similar to stroke 1 but in opposite direction). Results obtained from this research are helpful for future work where they can be compared with those obtained from actual wing kinematics to assess the impact of kinematics on unsteady mechanisms.397411H. R.HamdaniAerospace Engineering Department, College of Aeronautical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, PakistanAerospace Engineering Department, College of Aeronautical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistanpayshrazah@yahoo.comA.AizazAerospace Engineering Department, College of Aeronautical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, PakistanAerospace Engineering Department, College of Aeronautical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistanpaysahmadaizaz@cae.nust.edu.pkM. A.NaqviAerospace Engineering Department, College of Aeronautical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, PakistanAerospace Engineering Department, College of Aeronautical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistanpaysdmodirwpn@pac.org.pkHovering Delayed stall Wake capture Insect flight Low Reynolds number CFD Unsteady mechanism Flapping wing Wing kinematics.[Aono, H., F. Liang and H. Liu (2008). Near- and far-field aerodynamics in insect hovering flight: an integrated computational study. Journal of Experimental Biology 211, 239-257.##
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]Three-Dimensional Axisymmetric Solidification of a Viscous Incompressible Flow in the Stagnation Point Region22The history of the study of fluid solidification in stagnation flow is very limited. Among these studies, only one two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate case has considered fluid viscosity and pressure variation along the boundary layer. In the present paper, the solidification process of an incompressible viscous fluid in a three-dimensional axisymmetric coordinate system is considered. The solidification is modeled by solving the momentum equations governing a problem in which a plate is moving toward an impinging fluid with a variable velocity and acceleration. The unsteady momentum equations are transformed to ordinary differential equations by using properly introduced similarity variable. Furthermore, pressure variations along the boundary layer thickness are taken into account. The energy equation is solved by numerical method as well as similarity solution. Interestingly, similarity solution of the energy equation is used for validation of the numerical solution. In this research, distributions of the fluid temperature, transient distributions of the velocity components and, most importantly, the solidification rate are presented for different values of non-dimensional governing parameters including Prandtl number and Stefan number. A comparison is made between the solidification processes of axisymmetric three-dimensional and two-dimensional cases to justify the achieved results in a better way. The obtained results reveal that there is a difference between the final solid thickness, when the process has reached to its steady condition, of three-dimensional axisymmetric and two-dimensional cases. Also the results show that increase the Prandtl number up to 10 times or increase the heat diffusivity ratio up to 2 times lead to decrease the ultimate frozen thickness almost by half. While, the Stefan number has no effect on the value of thickness and its effect is captured only on the freezing time. Prediction the ultimate thickness of solid before obtaining solution and introducing a new method for validation of numerical results are achievements in this research.413420A.Shokrgozar AbbasiPayam noor of mashhadPayam noor of mashhadpaysshokrgozar.ali@gmail.comAxisymmetric solidification Viscous flow Exact solution Stagnation point Unsteady flow.[Brattkus, k. and S. H. Davis (1988). Flow induced morphological instabilities: stagnation-point flows. Journal of Crystal Growth 89, 423-427.##
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]A MLPG Meshless Method for Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Incompressible Flows22This article presents a numerical algorithm using the Meshless Local PetrovGalerkin (MLPG) method for numerical simulation of unsteady incompressible flows, governed by the Navier–Stokes equations via the stream function–vorticity (ψ–ω) formulation. The driven flow in a square cavity is used as the model problem. The present method is a truly meshless method based only on a number of randomly scattered nodes. The multiquadrics RBFs are employed for constructing trial functions in the local weighted meshless local Petrov–Galerkin method. The present numerical algorithm is based on a local weighted residual method with the Heaviside step function as the test function over a local subdomain. The efficiency, accuracy and robustness of the numerical algorithm are demonstrated by the standard driven cavity. It is observed that the obtained results agreed very well with the results of Ghia. Therefore the ability and accuracy of the present numerical algorithm was presented by solving the standard driven cavity flow problem with reasonable accuracy when compared to solutions obtained by Ghia. In other words the benchmark computations indicate that the MLPG Meshless method is very effective in the simulation of fluid flow problems. 421432I.SaeedpanahDepartment of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.paysi_s_panah@yahoo.comMLPG meshless method Radial basis function Vorticity-stream function Shape functions Navier-stokes equations Heaviside step function. [Alam, M. M. A., T. Setoguchi M. Takao and H. D. Kim (2016). Numerical analysis of the high speed driven cavity flow in 2-d curved channel. Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics 9(2), 529-536.##
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]Force Generation Mechanisms by an Insect Wing in Hovering Motion with Different Flipping Schedules22The aerodynamic force and the flow structure of a wing performing hovering motion at small Reynolds number (Re=4000) is calculated by computationally solving the 3D Navier-Stokes equations. The computations are performed for the hovering motion which consists of stroke 1, followed by the flipping motion for reversing the direction and then the stroke 2 (similar to stroke 1 but in the opposite direction). The intent of the study is to research the effects of different scheduling of the flip motion between the two strokes. At Re=4000, the delayed stall mechanism is noted during the azimuth rotation of a wing with a high value of CL due to stabilized Leading Edge Vortex. The lift contribution during the flip (pitch rotation for reversing the direction) for the complete stroke is not substantial. During a stroke, the wing encountered the wake from the previous stroke in which, the wake does not contribute positively.433445H. R.HamdaniCollege of Aeronautical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, PakistanCollege of Aeronautical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistanpayshrazah@yahoo.comA.AizazCollege of Aeronautical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, PakistanCollege of Aeronautical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistanpaysahmadaizaz@cae.nust.edu.pkA.NaqviCollege of Aeronautical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, PakistanCollege of Aeronautical Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistanpaysdmodirwpn@pac.org.pkHovering Delayed stall Wake capture Flip scheduling Low reynolds number CFD.[Aono, H., F. Liang and H. Liu (2008). Near- and far-field aerodynamics in insect hovering flight: an integrated computational study. Journal of Experimental Biology 211, 239-257.##
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]Numerical Study of Unsteady Cavitating Flows around a Hydrofoil22In this paper, we report the results of a numerical investigation on unsteady cavitating flows around a circular leading edge (CLE) hydrofoil. The objective of this study is to properly predict the appearance of cavitation pocket, its development and its detachment causing adverse effects on industrial systems such as microscopic plastic deformations at the solid walls. For this reason it is very important to study the influence of turbulence models on simulation results. We present a closing of the hydrodynamic equation system by a transport equation of an active scalar (volume fraction of the vapor phase) with a source terms. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code used is ANSYS CFX. Before comparing the capability of the different turbulent models to predict unsteady behavior of cavitating flow along the hydrofoil, the study of the influence of the mesh resolution was performed in cavitating condition. This investigation was performed, on CLE hydrofoil, by monitoring the influence of for progressively finer meshes on the values of the drag CD and lift CL coefficients. Moreover, a study of the influence of the normal dimensionless distance to the wall (y+) was carried out on the hydrofoil surface. For the unsteady flow, a comparison of different turbulence models with the experiment leads to study the interaction of these models with the vapor pocket (detachment and collapse of vapor pocket). Two turbulence models were tested in this study: modified k-ε model and large eddy simulation (LES). In the present work, the predictions of velocity and pressure evolutions in the vicinity of the hydrofoil are compared to experimental data.447458A.Bel Hadj TaherLaboratory of Hydraulic and Environmental Modeling, National Engineering School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia.Laboratory of Hydraulic and Environmental Modeling, National Engineering School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia.paysahmed.lmhe_enit@yahoo.frH.KanfoudiLaboratory of Hydraulic and Environmental Modeling, National Engineering School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia.Laboratory of Hydraulic and Environmental Modeling, National Engineering School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia.payskanfoudih@yahoo.frM.EnnouriLaboratory of Hydraulic and Environmental Modeling, National Engineering School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia.Laboratory of Hydraulic and Environmental Modeling, National Engineering School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia.paysennouri.marwa@gmail.comR.ZgolliLaboratory of Hydraulic and Environmental Modeling, National Engineering School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia.Laboratory of Hydraulic and Environmental Modeling, National Engineering School of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia.paysridha.zgolli@enit.rnu.tnCavitation CLE hydrofoil URANS LES.[Aghaee-Shalmani, Y. and H. Hakimzadeh. (2016). Numerical modeling of 2-D and 3-D flows using artificial compressibility method and collocation mesh. Journal of Applied Fluid Mecanics 9(5), 2333-2345.##
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]Numerical Study on the Magnetohydrodynamics of a Liquid Metal Oscillatory Flow under Inductionless Approximation22A harmonically-driven, incompressible, electrically conducting, and viscous liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flow through a thin walled duct of rectangular cross section interacting with a uniform magnetic field traverse to its motion direction is numerically investigated. Chebyshev spectral collocation method is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equation under the inductionless approximation for the magnetic field in the gradient formulation for the electric field. Flow is considered fully developed in the direction perpendicular to the applied magnetic field and laminar in regime. Validation of numerical calculations respect to analytical calculations is established. Flow structure and key magnetohydrodynamic features regarding eventual alternating power generation application in a rectangular channel liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic generator setup are numerically inquired. Influence of pertinent parameters such as Hartmann number, oscillatory interaction parameter and wall conductance ratio on magnetohydrodynamic flow characteristics is illustrated. Particularly, it is found that in the side layer and its vicinity the emerging flow structures/patterns depend mainly on the Hartmann number and oscillatory interaction parameter ratio, while the situation for the Hartmann layer and its vicinity is less eventful. A similar feature has been discussed in the literature for the steady liquid metal flow case and served as rationale for developing the composite core-side-layer approximation to study the magnetohydrodynamics of liquid metal flows usable in direct power generation. In this study that approximation is not considered and the analysis is performed on liquid metal oscillatory (i., e., unsteady) flows usable in alternating power generation. Conversely, in terms of prospective practical applicability the formulation developed and tested with these calculations admits the implementation of a load resistance and walls conductivity optimization. That means that besides representing a numerical study on the magnetohydrodynamics of the oscillatory flow under consideration, absent in the literature for the parametric ranges reported, the formulation presently implemented can also be applicable to study the performance of an alternating liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic generator in the rectangular channel configuration.459477J. A.Rizzo-SierraApplied Science and Advanced Technology Research Center, National Polytechnic Institute, (CICATA-IPN), Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro, 76090, MéxicoApplied Science and Advanced Technology Research Center, National Polytechnic Institute, (CICATA-IPN), Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro, 76090, Méxicopaysamilcar.rizzo@gmail.comMagnetohydrodynamics Oscillatory liquid metal flow Laminar fully developed regime Inductionless approximation Navier-Stokes equation Spectral collocation method Power generation.[Akyüz, A. and M. Sezer (2003). Chebyshev polynomial solutions of systems of high-order linear differential equations with variable coefficients. Applied mathematics and computation 144(2), 237-247.##
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