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Effects of false-ceiling on critical ventilation velocity and maximum gas temperature in tunnel fires
Author(s): Hamidreza Savalanpour, Bijan Farhanieh, Hossein Afshin
Keywords: Tunnel Fire, Smoke Control, False-ceiling, ventilation, Fluid dynamics, Computational
In the present study, the effect of the use of false-ceiling on fire induced smoke flow characteristics in tunnels is investigated using a 3D developed computational fluid dynamics tool. The critical velocity, the minimum required tunnel ventilation velocity to stop fire induced smoke flow from moving upstream of the fire source (toward the inlet of the tunnel), and the maximum gas temperature beneath the ceiling are selected to evaluate the smoke flow control in presence of the false-ceiling. The hydraulic height of cross sectional geometry of the tunnel is used as the characteristic length in order to dimensional analyze and compare the non-dimensional results. The results indicate that the use of the false-ceiling reduces the critical velocity and the smoke backlayering, while increases the maximum ceiling gas temperature. Reducing the critical velocity results in ventilation cost reduction (positive impact), while increasing the maximum gas temperature beneath the ceiling increases the risk of instrumental and life damages (negative impact). The detailed results and corresponding physical discussions are presented to clarify the reason for the significant differences between the results of the tunnels with and without false-ceiling.